SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL REVIEWED INTERNET JOURNAL

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Issue #3 (Volume 21)
2022

Creation of measuring tool 'Level Of Marital Completeness In Family With Children' - Theoretical Ground and Methodical Approach to Meet the challenge of the task

By Budinaite Grazhina

Ph.D, docent of the psychological department of Social Science faculty
of NRU «High Scholl of Economics», psychotherapist,
member of the Board of Society of family counsellors and psychotherapists
HSE University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Psychology
Moscow, Russia
gbudinayte@hse.ru

Keywords: marital divorce in family; completed and still going divorce process; theoretical basics
for the tool craation , main features of completed divorce; marital and parental roles in family;
parent-child relations; multinuclear family system; methodical approach to the task; main scales
of the questionnaire; content-related validity, constructive validity.

Success Factors and Difficulties of Psychotherapy Pandemic

By Bykhovets Julia Vasilevna

PhD, senior researcher
Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Moscow, Russia
bykhovets@yandex.ru


Keywords: online psychotherapy, pandemic, COVID-19, psychotherapists, features of
psychological counseling.

Intentional Content of Psychotherapeutic Speech

By Elena I. Kirillova

Ph.D in psychology, teacher
Moscow Institute of Counseling Psychology and Consulting
Moscow, Russia
kirillova-ei@mail.ru


Keywords: psychotherapeutic speech, speech intentions of a psychotherapist, technique of intent-
analysis of psychotherapeutic discourse.

Good Questions For Parents Of Transgender Teenagers

By Inga Grin

Ph.D, senior Lecturer, WPATH member
HSE University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Psychology
Moscow, Russia
admiralskaya@gmail.com


Keywords: gender incongruence, teenagers, family counseling, narrative practice.

Psychological Assistance To Families Through The Pandemic And Social Crisis

By Manukhina Natalya Mikhailovna

PhD in Psychology family and clinical psychologist and system coach,
supervisor, writer, individual entrepreneur
Institute of Group and Family Psychology and Psychotherapy
Moscow, Russia
nata@manuhina-nm.ru


Keywords: a crisis; pandemic; new queries, tricks and methods; systemic family approaches;
system coaching; systemic assistance in a crisis situation; post-crisis support; illness, recovery,
health; changes.

The Possibility Of Reflecting The Experience Of The COVID-19 Pandemic In The Content of Family Myths

By Tatiana Yakimova

PhD, associate prohessor
Moscow State University of Psychology and Education (MSUPE)
Moscow, Russia
tyackimova@yandex.ru


and co-authors (4th year students of the MSUPE):
D. Firsova, A. Bogomolov, T. Borisova, A. Eremina, A. Drakina, N.
Mikhailenko, M. Morozova, P. Nikiforova, S. Rashevskaya
Moscow, Russia

Keywords: pandemic, situation of uncertainty and threats, coping methods, family myths.

Psychiatric Hospital Or 'Helping Environment'? Systemic Family Psychotherapy As a Key Success Factor In a Systemic Approach To Helping Patients With Mental Disorders In Conditions Of Uncertainty (On the example of successful treatment of eating disorders in a private psychotherapeutic in-patient facility)

By Smirenskaya Elena

Doctor, psychologist, family therapist, director and co-founder LLC «Family Practice»
Psychotherapy Clinic «Family Practice»
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
piytina69@yandex.ru


Keywords: individual complex approach, in-patient facility help, out-patient facility help, eating
disorder, anorexia, systemic approach, systemic family therapy, the family of a patient with
anorexia, the family of a patient with a mental illness, patients' routing.

Remote Counseling Of Children With Develpmental Disorders: The Importance Of Parental Involvement

By Shcherbakova Anna

PhD, professor
Moscow State University of Psychology and Education (MSUPE)
Moscow, Russia
scherbakovaam@mgppu.ru


Keywords: children with developmental disorders, productive activity, joint activity of parents
and children, productive activity, psychological and pedagogical support of the family

Online Therapeutic Groups For Parents During The Pandemic

By Gorina Ekaterina
psychologist
ANO Center «Space for Communication»
Moscow, Russia
ekaterina.gorina1988@gmail.com

Ryazanova Anastasia
psychologist, director
ANO Center «Space for Communication»
Moscow, Russia
aryzanova@yandex.ru


Keywords: therapeutic groups, psychological help online, parents of children with disabilities

Problems Of Psychological Support For Families Raising Children With Cancer During Epidemiological And Socio-Economic Limitations

By Ulybina Ekaterina Vladimirovna

senior lecturer, Department of Psychology and Pedagogy of Childhood
Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafiev
Krasnoyarsk, Russia
fyodorova_90@inbox.ru


Keywords: oncological disease, life-threatening disease, childhood cancer patient, psychological
assistance.

Early Childhood Intervention During COVID-19 Pandemic

By Bitova Anna
chairman of the Board, defectologist
Regional non-profit social organization «Center for Curative Pedagogics» (CCP)
Moscow, Russia
bial@ccp.org.ru

Samarina Larissa
director, psychologist
St. Petersburg Early Intervention Institute
St. Petersburg, Russia
larissa30@yandex.ru

Shirshova Inna
leader of program «Inclusive environment»
Sberbank's Charity Foundation «Investment to the Future»
Moscow, Russia
shirshova@vbudushee.ru


Keywords: early assistance, children with special needs, children with disorders, children,
motherhood, health care, psychology, social care.

Family Support For The Family Of a Special Early Child In The DIRFloortime Approach

By Romanovsky Nikolay

PhD in psychology, psychologist, senior scientist,
Head of Direction at St. Luke's Center for Health and Development
Laboratory of Comprehensive Studies in the Field of Early Intervention, Institute of Special
Education of the Russian Academy of Education
Moscow, Russia
Romanovskij2@gmail.com

Azirova Anna
expert DIR/Floortime teacher, speech therapist, psychologist, leading expert
NKO «Dialog-Flortajm», St. Luke's Center for Health and Development
Moscow, Russia
annaazi@yandex.ru


Keywords: special early childhood, early intervention, relationship with mother, DIRFloortime,
parental involvement.

The Relatives Of The People With Mental Disorders During Social Disturbance

By Maklin M. V.

Phd, medical psychologist, family psychotherapist,
member of society of family consultants and psychotherapists
Federal state budgetary scientific institution «Mental health research center»
Moscow, Russia
masha.maklin@gmail.com

Boyko O. M.
research associate of clinical psychology department
Federal state budgetary scientific institution «Mental health research center»
Moscow, Russia
olga.m.boyko@gmail.com


Keywords: mental disorder, relatives of people with mental disorders, social upheaval, COVID-
19, family of people with mental disorders support.

Social Atom Of A Teenager: Map Of Questions And Answers

By Bogomyagkova Oksana N.

candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor
Moscow State Psychological and Pedagogical University
Moscow, Russia
bogom-on@mail.ru


Keywords: family, children, teenager, psychological safety, psychodrama, social atom,
destructive behavior, family script, identity.

The Advantages Of Systemic Family Therapy While Working With Teenagers Who Self-Harm. Difficulties With Translating The Term 'Self-Harm'

By Tatiana Kharaburova

Clinic of psychotherapy «Semeynaya Praktika» with 24-hour in-patient facility
Psychiatrist, psychotherapist, family therapist, group therapist,
chief doctor and cofounder of clinics «Semeynaya Praktika»
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Katyana73@list.ru

Keywords: self-harm, teenagers, systemic family therapy.

Love Through Time

By Larina Larisa Yurievna
lecturer
Moscow State University Psychology & Education
Moscow, Russia
larilar72@gmail.com

Akhlamova Anastasiia Vladimirovna
Student
Moscow State University Psychology & Education
Moscow, Russia
asenok.asya@yandex.ru

Karpova Ekaterina Ivanovna
Student
Moscow State University Psychology & Education
Moscow, Russia
karpova.katerina99@ya.ru


Klimenko Alisa Vyacheslavovna
Student
Moscow State University Psychology & Education
Moscow, Russia
i.yaschik@yandex.ru

Kostina Elizaveta Mikhailovna
Student
Moscow State University Psychology & Education
Moscow, Russia
elizav.ko@gmail.com

Ostrosablina Maria Aleksandrovna
Student
Moscow State University Psychology & Education
Moscow, Russia
ostrosablina.masha@yandex.ru

Solonkina Veronika Aleksandrovna
Student
Moscow State University Psychology & Education
Moscow, Russia
vera.polunina.99@mail.ru

Tolstova Tatiana Vitalevna
Student
Moscow State University Psychology & Education
Moscow, Russia
just-maill@ya.ru


Keywords: love, soviet Russian village, family dyad, family values, partner choice.

Ambiguity Tolerance Of The Family: Therapy With Adolescents At Crisis Department

By Laysheva Galina

Phd, clinical psychologist
Sukhareva scientific and practical center for mental health of children and adolescents of
Moscow department of public heath
Moscow, Russia
ivanishuk.galina@gmail.com


Keywords: family counseling for adolescents, non-suicidal self-harm, an unfinished divorce,
communication problems, ambiguity intolerance of the family.

The Importance Of Considering Cultural And National Aspects In Individual, Family and Parent-Child Counseling

By Elena Kurtbedinova

clinical psychologist, psychoanalytic psychotherapist,
family systems psychotherapist, EFT therapist
second year student in William Alanson White Institute
of Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, Psychology
Simferopol, Russia

Keywords: culture, nationality, cultural peculiarity, social group.

Subjective Picture Of Parental Alternatives In Adolescence

By Malenova Arina Yuryevna

candidate of Psychological Sciences, associate professor,
senior researcher at the Department of General and Social Psychology
Dostoevsky Omsk State University
Kostroma State University
Omsk, Russia
malyonova@mail.ru


Keywords: family relations, forms of parenthood, attitudes, schoolchildren, girls, boys.

Non-Monogamous Ways Of Building Family Life. What Does One Need To Know When Working With Polyamorous Clients

By Olga Alexandrovna Dulepina

gestalt therapist, supervisor
Moscow Gestalt Institute
Moscow, Russia
olgadugina@gmail.com

Keywords
: polyamory, polyamorous lifestyle, risks of polyamory, psychotherapy, forms of
closeness.

Digital Infidelity: Is It Time To Be Wary Or The Sign To Stay Married?

By Yuliya Hill
graduate student, couples therapist, EFT therapist,
sex therapist, psychologist
Center of System Family therapy
Moscow, Russia
hill.juliya@gmail.com



Abstract. While COVID-19 social restrictions caused the lack of extradyadic communication,
some partners tended to cope and appealed for emotional support dating online. Family therapists
faced the need to research a phenomenon of 'digital infidelity' through the lens of attachment. A
short survey allowed us to identify how partners understand the signs of infidelity, what their
attitude towards cybercheating is, and how it affects the current relationships.

Keywords: infidelity, cybercheating, family in pandemic, internet affair, jealousy in couple,
psychological distress, romantic relationship, pandemic, COVID-19.

Psychological Games "CHOICE" And "STOP.SCANDAL" As A Transitional Object To Supporting In Situations Of Uncertainty

By Alla Chugueva

family therapist, couple therapist
Studio of psychological games «Reflection»
Moscow, Russia
chugueva.alla@gmail.com

Keywords: couple therapy, psychological games.

A Developmental Approach To Treatment In Couples Therapy. Couples Development Model: Codependency - Counter-Dependency - Independence - Interdependence Or Partnership Relations

By Olga Dulepina

gestalt therapist and supervisor
Moscow Gestalt Institute
Moscow, Russia
olgadugina@gmail.com

Keywords:
codependency, counterdependence, independence, interdependence, partnerships,
evolutionary approach.

Family + Individual Therapy: When Can We Say 'Yes'?

By Galina Sypkova, Marina Lokhmatova, Irina Korneeva
Institute of Integrative Family Therapy
Moscow, Russia

Keywords:
couples therapy, a team of psychotherapists, combination of individual and couples
psychotherapy.

How Are One Partner's Gender Attitudes Related To The Dyadic Coping And Relationship Satisfaction Of The Other Partner?

By Silina Ekaterina
junior researcher
Kostroma State University
Kostroma, Russia
sea11rin@gmail.com

Opekina Tatyana
senior lecturer
Kostroma State University
Kostroma, Russia
grigorova.t90@mail.ru

Rrykova Tatyana
professor
Kostroma State University
Kostroma, Russia
tat.krukova44@gmail.com

Keywords:
close relationships, gender attitudes, stress, dyadic coping, relationship satisfaction.

The Modern Family And Creativity

By Ksenia Ilinskaya

masters degree of psychology,
professor in master's program of systemic family therapy of HSE
HSE University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Psychology
Moscow, Russia
kseniailinskaya@gmail.com

Keywords:
modern family, creativity, narradrama, art therapy, narrative therapy, trauma.

Creativity As A Determinant Of Well-Being In Conditions Of Uncertainty

By Dymarskaya Olga Yakovlevna

Cand. Sc. (Sociology)
Senior lecturer at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
CEO in ANPO Project Bureau «Social Action»
Moscow, Russia
dymarskaya@yandex.ru

Keywords
: uncertainty, creativity, well-being, VUCA, BANY, disadaptation, pandemic.

Genosociogram As A Research Method Of Ancestors' Survival Strategies In Difficult Times

By Krainova Anna Anatolievna

doctor, clinical psychologist, system family psychotherapist,
supervisor, private practice
Moscow, Russia
kanna77@yandex.ru

Keywords
: survival, ancestors, adaptation, continuity, unvisible loyalty, serendipity,
genosociogram.

Creative Interaction: Experience Of Art Therapy Classes During The Pandemic

By Chuganskaya Anfisa

PhD in Psychology, researcher, lector, art therapist
Federal Research Center «Informatics and Management» of the Russian
Academy of Sciences (FКС IU RAS)
International School of Art Therapy
Moscow, Russia
anfisa.makh@gmail.com

Keywords:
art therapy, creativity, interactions, pandemic, drawing.

Promotion in Psychotherapy: It's Not Allowed, But You Can

By Fedoryak Valeria
master of psychology, guest lecturer
Higher School of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Psychology
Moscow, Russia
vfedoryak@hse.ru
valerya.fedoryak@gmail.com

Rytsareva Tatiana
Phd, guest lecturer, senior expert
Meta — psychotherapist selection service
Moscow, Russia
t.rytsareva@gmail.com

Keywords: promotion in psychotherapy, professional ethics, ethical risks.
Issue #2 (Volume 20)
2022

Traits of Family, Interpersonal and Social Behavior in Descendants of Persons Suffered by Political Repressions of the Soviet period in 1917–1940s

By Andrey Gronsky
Ph.D. in medicine, associate professor
Chinakova Nina Vasilievna
Novosibirsk State University

Qualitative research methods as semi-structured, in-depth interview and written structured survey were used for identify the impact of intergenerational trauma caused by political repression during the Soviet time. 9 persons took part in the study. All of them reliably knew that among the members of the previous generations of their family there were people who suffered from political repressions on the territory of the USSR during the period since the beginning of the Civil War till the first half of the 40s. Most of the respondents reported that some kind of repression of the Soviet period affected not one generation, but two or three generations of the family. The most frequently cited repressions were dispossession of peasants and deportation of the Volga Germans. The parents of the respondents were the first generation who was not subjected to political repression. The results of the survey showed that the parents of the respondents, i. e. the first generation, which was not directly affected by repression, had such traits as a tendency to secrecy when interacting with an extra-family environment and difficulties in expressing feelings in family communication. The first generation is characterized by avoidance of public expression of their point of view on political issues, pro-Soviet and pro-state sentiment. Respondents, i. e. the second generation, are characterized by less secrecy and more openness in communication, a sense of greater freedom in expressing their point of view on political issues. At the same time, the majority of participants have a tendency to non-participation in civic activism, fear of reprisals and disbelief that the expression of their opinion can influence the political life of society. Thus, the psychological impact of political repression that affected the previous generations of the family persisted over two next generations. Although its influence became weaker in the second intact generation, it did not disappear completely.
Keywords: collective trauma, political repression, multigenerational trauma, intergenerational transmission, transgenerational trauma.

A Client's Case Supervision

By Ekaterina Jokhova
Supervision is a significant part of a psychologist's professional development. It increases their efficiency and helps to maintain a therapeutic position. A group supervision has multiple advantages connected with exchanging experience with fellow colleagues within the atmosphere of mutual respect and support. This publication is an illustration of how supervisions are held within The Society of Family Counsellors and Psychotherapists (SFCAP). The first part of the article includes a presentation of a case involving description of a client's family background story, their complaints and a request for psychological work, as well as major ideas of the psychologist and their request for a supervision.
The second part includes a discussion held by members of SFCAP, their feedback and follow-up questions. For a number of reasons, a supervision group does not always receive feedback from a supervisee after some time following the support request. In particular, the group frequently has the following questions remaining: what effect did the supervision have on the work of the psychologist with the specific given case? How much further did it help them move within the case? And what exactly is the benefit of the supervision that the psychologist sees? Answers to these questions are briefly introduced in the last part of this article.
Keywords: supervision, a client case, family system psychotherapy, professional community.
Issue #1 (Volume 19)
2022

Difficulties of teaching Bowen theory of family systems

By Anna Varga, PhD, Assistant professor

Murray Bowen is the author of the theory of emotional systems. It is vast, claiming to be all-encompassing. The approach is evolving and being taught.
The process of teaching students is discussed. Concepts that are difficult to understand such as the «emotional system», the basic level of differentiation, «relationship experiments» are explained. Techniques and methods of therapy and coaching are described. A therapeutic case is given.

Keywords: Bowen emotional system theory, training, level of differentiation, detriangulation.

Narrative practice: a history of resistance to emotional swing

By Inna Nesterova, HSE University, MS, Narrative consultant

In modern relationships, self-sufficiency or separation of partners from each other is thought to be the basis of long-term happy monogamous relationships. At the same time, emotions are an integral part of relationships, which receive a lot of attention and importance. The instability of the emotional background is seen as something that undermines the basis of the relationship and the hope for a happy future in a couple. This article reveals how narrative practice can effectively solve this problem in individual work with a client. Techniques and directions of work are given that contribute to the stabilization of the emotional background in a pair through work with one partner. The first part of the article examines the classic concept of working with emotions in narrative practice as part of the context. And the dilemma of the relative affective turn in modern practice is raised. The second part of the article provides an interview with a client, in which he gives an example of his unique experience of resisting emotional instability. The client describes how he was able to expand the context of perception of the relationship and himself in them, as well as find new ways of expressing his values regarding the relationship. This example can enrich the practice of narrative practitioners as a story that can promote and inspire similar clients. Also, this article is intended for everyone who has ever faced an unstable emotional background in relationships and communication problems.

Keywords: : narrative practice, relationships, emotions, instability, conflict.
Issue #4 (Volume 18)
2021

Constellations as an indicator of modern family transformation trends

By Valeriya Narinskaya

The article attempts to analyze a number of socio-psychological phenomena of family systems in the context of coexistence a tendency towards an increase in the variability of the interpretation of the modern family and an intensive popularisation of the traditional image of the family. The author emphasizes the importance of the principle of reality and the principle of valuelessness not only in psychotherapy, but also in wider social practice. Particular attention is paid to the indication in the arrangement of real paths of development of family systems.

Keywords: family psychotherapy, functional family, weaving, constellation

Humour styles conjunction with the stages of the family life cycle

By Ksenia Ivanova, Alina Abramova, Olga Golovina

The current research explores the role of humor in couples' relationships. The study sample consisted of 539 people. Of these, 459 are women and 80 are men. 69 couples (138 people) took part in the study. During the theoretical analysis and empirical research, the connection between the styles of humor (according to R. Martin) with the peculiarities of communication in a couple and the sexual satisfaction of partners was proved. A link has been proven between the styles of humor and the age of the respondents, as well as the stage of the life cycle of the family in which the couple is. Humor has been shown to play a different role in the relationship between men and women (regardless of the gender of their partners). An analysis conducted to compare the styles of humor within couples showed that similar styles of humor in partners are not associated with their greater satisfaction from communication and sex in a couple. At the same time, we found that the presence of an aggressive style of humor in at least one of the partners is positively associated with satisfaction from the sexual life of both.

Keywords: humor, stages of the family life cycle, communication within a couple, sexual satisfaction


Issue #3 (Volume 17)
2021

Cognitive-behavioral attitudes formed by trauma of political repressions and their family inheritance

By Gronskiy Andrey, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate professor

The article is based on the empirical research of post-totalitarian attitudes formed as a result of collective trauma of political repression in USSR and their ways of intergenerational transmission. 146 university students took part in the study. The average age was 20. Survey tools were used compiled by us post-totalitarian attitudes inventory. It was revealed that all respondents know about political repression in the USSR, 40% know that there were repressed relatives in their family. Nonetheless the attitude towards political repressions in the sample was heterogeneous. 60% of respondents refer to political repression with unconditional condemnation. 21% believe that repression was necessary. 40%, in general, have a positive attitude towards the period of Stalin's rule, despite particular disadvantages. As for attitudes, transmitted by older generation, 73% of respondents have heard from their parents or grandparents verbal messages about the inability to influence the political life of the country. 84% indicated that their close relatives avoid criticizing the actions of the state authorities in a public setting. 62% indicated that political issues are rarely discussed in parental families. As regards their own cognitive attitudes, emotional and behavioral reactions, half (52%) of respondents have a vague fear of a repeat of mass political repression. Almost half (46%) of the survey participants believe that although the days of Stalinism are over, they need to control their statements and actions for their own safety. At the same time, the attitude of helplessness and powerlessness regarding social life is much less represented in the student sample than in the generation of their parents.

Keywords: collective trauma, totalitarianism, political repression, post-totalitarian attitudes, intergenerational transmission, transgenerational trauma.

Features of family adaptation of patients with epilepsy with suicidal thoughts

By Mikhailov Vladimir, Ph.D. in Psychology, Medical psychologist, Senior researcher of the department for the treatment of patients with exogenously-organic disorders and epilepsy V.M. Bekhterev National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Neurology

Yakunina Olga, Ph.D. in Psychology, Medical psychologist, Senior researcher of the department for the treatment of patients with exogenously-organic disorders and epilepsy V.M. Bekhterev National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Neurology

Shova Natalia, Post-graduate student of the department for the treatment of patients with epilepsy V.M. Bekhterev National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Neurology


The closest and most informal contacts between people are established in the sphere of family relations. The family most clearly manifests personality traits of each of its members. Favorable intra-family relationships are a factor in positive spontaneous psycho-corrective effects. The study of the microclimate in the family, the value orientations of its members, areas of personal growth is of great importance for increasing the level of social adaptation of patients with epilepsy. The study of the clinical and psychological aspects of family relationships in pediatric epileptology is given quite a lot of attention; there are few studies of intra-family relationships in adult patients. Knowledge of the psychological microclimate in the family is of great importance for the organization of psychocorrectional work with the patient and his environment. In the diagnosis of personality characteristics and interpersonal relationships of patients with epilepsy, an important role is given to experimentally psychological methods. The results obtained are used in psychocorrectional work and contribute to the solution of socially significant problems of patients with epilepsy.

Keywords: epilepsy, family relationships, suicidal behavior.
Issue #2 (Volume 16)
2021

Techniques of personal construct family Therapy

By Harry Procter
From Winter, D. and Viney, L. (2005) Personal Construct Psychotherapy:
Advances in Theory, Practice and Research. London: Whurr

Translated by Alexey Shmelev
Issue #1 (Volume 15)
2021

Family reading and features of parent relation in families with younger students

By Alexandra Berezinа, MPhD in psychology, docent, Researcher of the Department of Sociology, Psychology and Pedagogy of Children's Reading, Associate Professor of the Department of Psychotherapy and Psychological Counseling

Leisan Zakharova, Consultant psychologist

The article deals with the practice of family reading as a practice of parent interaction in families with children of primary school age. The problem was solved at the intersection of parent relation, attachment theory and approaches to the study of family reading practices. This publication describes the importance of reading fiction to children, including family (parent) reading, despite the fact that modern parents do not always realize this importance or do not have time for such interaction with their child, especially if the child has already learned to read himself. The article points out the difference between family reading and other types of reading. It presents the results of an empirical study aimed at identifying the relationship between joint family reading of fiction and the nature of parent relations in families with younger schoolchildren. Correlation analysis allowed to reveal certain correlations between the features of reading by parents to children of primary school age (frequency of reading, reading discussion, the various lists of «required» and «unwanted» books, who is the initiator of reading and choosing a book, adult or child) and such parties parent-child relationship emotional support, acceptance, cooperation, concentration on the child. The study shows that in families where shared family reading is more intense, there will be greater parental acceptance of the child, more positive parental attitudes, and more positive emotional relationships between parent and child. The results of an empirical study presented in the article can be used as a basis for recommendations for psychological counseling of parents of primary school children.

Keywords: family reading, family reading practices, family education, parent relations, junior school student.
Issue #3-4 (Volume 13-14)
2020

How to go through transitioning process and stay partners

By Anton Makintosh, Narrative practitioner

I am a transgender person myself, about eleven years ago I went through a transgender transition; my gender assigned at birth is female. This text is influenced by my personal experience, but I will not describe it. I'm not really an expert on this issue, because I personally did not manage to live through the transgender transition and maintain the partnership that was at the time of the transition. This text is based on the experiences of other transgender people.

Keywords: transgender, transitioning, gender

On the threshold of a new masculinity: what does it mean to be a man outside of patriarchal norms

By Kirill Fedorov, Founder of the Psychology for Human Rights movement

What does it mean to be a man outside of patriarchal norms? There is no answer to this question. More precisely, the answer has been formulated by psychologists, researchers, and activists in recent years. And now it is possible to make a number of assumptions based on certain trends that can be traced in the field of gender relations.

Keywords: transgender, gender, masculinity

Physical environment as a frame of the therapy process

By Anastasia Varzakova, Master
Anna Varga, PhD, Assistant professor

The psychotherapist's office considers here as a frame of the therapeutic process. Its interior is a message to the client. It differs depending on therapeutic approach. The factors of the physical environment influencing the effectiveness of psychotherapy are highlighted.

Keywords: effectiveness of psychotherapy, factors of physical environment, interior of the office as a message, office aesthetics, therapeutic space, therapists' attire, office environment.

The attitude of adolescent biological children to foster or adopted children

By Alexandra Samoilovskaya
Elena Chebotareva,PhD

The paper presents the results of a study, revealing the peculiarities of the attitude of biological adolescents from a foster/adoptive families to foster/adopted children in comparison with (to) adolescents who have no experience of living together with a foster or adopted child. An associative experiment and a method of concepts defining were used at the first stage of the study. 61 teenagers from 12 to 18 years old have participated (24 teenagers — biological children from foster or adoptive families, 37 teenagers — from families with no experience of adoption and alike). At the second stage, a semi-structured interview with 11 adolescents was conducted about their experience of life in a family with an adopted or foster child, also some projective techniques were used.
It was revealed that the representations of biological children from foster families are distinguished by greater objectivity, more details, are associated with real facts and feelings, they combine both positive and negative emotions. They reflect the acceptance of both adopted children with their characteristics and situations of adoption in general. Along with the recognition of the importance of caring for orphans, they have complex, ambivalent feelings towards adoptive siblings and towards the situation in general. The spectrum of feelings varies from irritation, alienation to sympathy, caring, desire to establish contact. The close acquaintance with the phenomenon of orphanhood is perceived by adolescents-biological children as a resource, despite the actualizing fears of loneliness and loss of loved ones. Thanks to this, they have the opportunity to expand their understanding of the world, develop important skills of responsibility, tolerance for differences, patience and acceptance. On the one hand, blood children from foster families consider adoption to be a normal form of parenting, on the other hand, understanding what resources this requires from parents makes them think about giving up parenting in the future in general. Teenagers in a foster family are experiencing a change in the structure of the family; they see their parents as having become close to the adopted child and themselves as pushed to the periphery of the family system. Experiencing positive emotions for the mother, they more often experience more negative emotions for the father.

Keywords: adoptive family, foster family, biological children, foster children, adopted children, sibling relationship, social representations.
Issue #2 (Volume 12)
2020

Group bibliotherapy in working with problems of child-parent interaction

By Golzitskaya Alena, Junior scientific researcher of Psychological institute of Russian Academy of Education

The article is devoted to affective group bibliotherapy. This method is based on the use of literary sources — literary texts and self-help books — in order to correct psychological difficulties. It describes the types of bibliotherapy, the main mechanisms of its functioning: identification, projection, catharsis, insight and universalization. The fundamental principles of selection and use of bibliotherapeutic works are also touched upon. Special attention is paid to the experience of using the method in the framework of the author's approach to the correction of logoneurosis — family group logopsychotherapy. The author reveals the specifics of the bibliodiagnostic stage of the work, where participants get acquainted with literary works and write their reviews about what they read, touching on the specific topics of communication difficulties with others, social perception of people with speech development peculiarities, conflict, unstable self-esteem, etc. It also talks about the nuances of analysis and selection of reviews by a bibliotherapist for further work. Further, the problems of organizing a group bibliotherapy process are considered — including creating a safe atmosphere, establishing rules, moderation and facilitation of group discussion of the emotional experience of participants and their strategies for coping with difficult life situations. In conclusion, the main results of group affective bibliotherapy are outlined in relation to the practice of family group logopsychotherapy — promoting emotional self-disclosure, sharing this experience with loved ones, enriching the repertoire of coping mechanisms and better awareness of destructive automatic response patterns.

Keywords: group bibliotherapy, child-parent interaction, book

Family and child in the DIR/Floortime approach

By Romanovskiy Nikolay, PhD in psychology, expert teacher DIRFloortime
Azirova Anna, Speech therapist, psychologist, early development specialist, expert teacher DIRFloortime

DIR/Floortime is increasingly used in work with children with ASD and other developmental disorders and is one of the popular and well-known psychological and pedagogical approaches. Its authors are an American psychiatrist Dr. Stanley Greenspan and his colleague Sirena Wider. One of the significant features of this approach is that it brings a child with impaired development closer to the path of healthy ontogenetic development. At the heart of DIR/Floortime there is a model of emotional functional development which includes a number of hierarchically organized skills necessary for the healthy development of the child's psyche. The development of these skills occurs in emotionally significant relationships that take into account the individual characteristics of the child, including the family component. From the point of view of the DIR/Floortime approach, the child's family is the main resource of his development. It is important for parents to have certain skills that facilitate interaction with the child. At the heart of the DIR/Floortime approach there is J. Bowlby's theory of attachment, in which great importance is given to the quality of attachment between the child and the parents. It can both facilitate and hinder the manifestation of these parenting skills. During lessons with the child and conversations with parents, we pay attention to the nature of interaction between parents and children, explore their capabilities and help them develop skills and abilities important for establishing interactions with the child. The article discusses these skills and provides specific examples of the DIR/Floortime specialist working with parents.

Keywords: greenspan, DIR/Floortime, play, social and emotional development, levels of emotional functional relations, autism, children with ASD, children with developmental disabilities, tasks of working with parents, experiencing depression, grief, attachment, family resources

The family system therapy on different stages of rehabilitation process: experience of working in rehab center

By Maksimova Olga, Geronimus Ivan, Arkhipova Marina

The article is devoted to the experience of psychotherapeutic work with the family of an adult suffering from chemical dependence in a rehabilitation clinic.
The experience of psychotherapeutic work with families of chemically dependent patients of a non-governmental social rehabilitation center for persons with chemical dependence from September 2017 to December 2019 is analyzed. The patients were men and women with a chemical addiction: alcoholism or drug addiction. Most of them at the time of passage of the program are from 18 to 45 y.o. During this period, 29 families completed rehabilitation program and participated in systemic family therapy.
The authors highlight a number of specific features of conducting systemic family psychotherapy as part of a rehabilitation program for addicts: low family motivation for psychotherapy, the need to build therapeutic work taking into account the logic of the rehabilitation process, its main stages and goals, specific challenges for maintaining therapeutic neutrality (need to communicate with patients beyond the therapeutic sessions and family desire to use therapist to maintain control over the patient). Features and objectives of therapy at different stages of rehabilitation are described and illustrated by a description of several therapeutic cases. The generalization of the practical experience of a systemic family therapist in rehabilitation can be considered as a first step towards the development and approbation of rehabilitation programs for addicted people, that include therapeutic work with the whole family of the patient in the logic of systemic family therapy.

Keywords: systemic family psychotherapy, chemical dependence, rehabilitation of people suffering from chemical dependence.
Issue #1 (Volume 11)
2020

The integrative approach to a therapy of parent-child relationship in the dir/floortime concept

By Vengerova Elena, Viktorova Lyubov

The article describes a therapeutic case that reveals specific features of the integration of play and family therapies in the DIR/Floortime concept. We analyze the particular aspects of working with a specific family with due regard for individual differences of a child. Through an interaction in a play space, the parents start to understand better the child's needs, while the child forms a significant relationship with the adults. When parents keep the child's play going, without imposing their own vision, the children realize their own value, the importance of their own opinion and interests. This position of an adult encourages the child to reflect on the situation and to search for attempts at solution; it also forms a mutually respectful context of relationship. The work by this method enables the development of a child, the improvement of the emotional contact and, in general, the mutual understanding in the family system.

Keywords: play therapy, family therapy, parent-child relationship, DIR/Floortime concept, sensory system, emotional contact, mutual understanding, understanding of needs.

The role of reliable attachment in trauma therapy. Emotionally focused approach

By Lucy Mikayelyan

According to John Bowlby's attachment theory, searching for and maintaining the contact with significant others is a basic human need during one's life span. The demand for attachment intensifies in situations of (acute) need, stress or uncertainty. Research shows that the secure attachment, characterized by the availability, responsiveness, and emotional involvement in the relationship is a natural defense in such circumstances. Secure bonds are of crucial importance in case of traumas of different etiology: any trauma destroys the sense of safety on a very basic level, while secure attachment provides this safety. The following article is specifically focused on the trauma healing by means of emotionally-focused therapy, the modern integrative model developed by Sue Johnson, with the goal of building/forming secure attachment bonds. The therapeutic process is illustrated by means of a clinical case.

Keywords: secure attachment, trauma, emotionally-focused therapy, EFT.

Issue #4 (Volume 10)
2019

What is "Natural" in us and what is the use of it: should social sciences rely on biology?

By Anton Tikhonov, PhD in molecular biology

The appeal to the natural sciences in social discussions is a way to lean on something unshakable, to reduce the dialogue, to bring into it the supposedly lost harmony of thought. Text argues that biology of complex human manifestations is not alike physics from the school textbook, that the use of «scientific» arguments rarely brings the desired relief, that reasoning about gender differences still shows bad taste, regardless of objective knowledge about the biology of behavior.

Keywords: behavioral biology, hierarchy of sciences, biological arguments in the social sciences

The interdependence posttraumatic stress features and the structural dimensions of family system

By Julia Bykhovets, PhD, Ekaterina Orlova, MA Psychology
Lina Kogan-Lerner


A part of a complex research dedicated to studying the interdependence between the posttraumatic stress features and the structural dimensions of family system is presented in this paper. 162 women have participated in the study by filling in the on-line versions of IES-R (Impact of Event Scale) and FACES-IV (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale). Thus, in this study correlations between the structural dimensions of family system (balanced scales: cohesion and flexibility; unbalanced scales: disengaged, enmeshed, chaotic, rigid; communication and family satisfaction scales) and posttraumatic stress features (intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal) are considered. Using the one-way ANOVA the following statistically significant differences were revealed: (1) one-ended relationship between avoidance features (IES-R) and cohesion and communication dimensions (FACES-IV); (2) two-ended relationship between chaotic scale dimension (FACES-VI) and intrusion, avoidance, hyperarousal features (IES-R); (3) two-ended relationship between cohesion, flexibility as well as disengaged, enmeshed scales dimensions (FACES-VI) and hyperarousal features (IES-R).

Keywords: posttraumatic stress features (intrusion, avoidance, hyperarousal), structural dimensions of family system (cohesive and flexible, disengaged and enmeshed, chaotic and rigid; communication and family satisfaction)

The trauma of stalinist repression in the context of collective trauma of genocides

By Elena Miskova, PhD, Associate Professor

The article is based on the empirical research of the multigenerational collective trauma on the Russian sample, specifically about the trauma of Stalinist repression. As a methodological basis for the study, an approach and a questionnaire by J. Danieli was used, which she applied to study the trauma of the Holocaust. According to Danieli, post-traumatic styles of behaviors of parents and grandparents in families whose members survived the events of the genocide are associated with the reparative life strategies of the descendants in several generations. Survey tools allow to study them in connection with the family history of respondents. The sample of the Russian research was formed in a similar way with the study of the Danieli group and had similar limitations (educated, mainly female respondents recruited through the social network Facebook). The study found the limitations of the multi-factor model of the genocide trauma for describing the collective trauma of Stalinist repression as part of the total trauma of Soviet totalitarianism. These limitations are associated with many factors that require further study, among which are features of the sociocultural context and typological differences of collective trauma. The study revealed a link between the open manifestation of emotional intimacy in families with the tragic history of repression with everyday life strategies and the behavior of descendants.

Keywords: collective trauma, historical trauma, family history
Issue #3 (Volume 9)
2019

Tree legs of the same loyalty: people and their pets

By Elena Fedorovich, PhD in Psychology

The establishment of strong emotional connections by people — experienced by them as attachment or as affection — with their pets, allows the latter to perform the function of maintaining and regulating family systems homeostasis. In addition, a "lightweight", safe and partly one-sided form of emotional relationship with companion animals, allows pet owners to receive emotional support in situations where such support from humans is limited or impossible. However, the other side of anthropomorphic attribution to pets of human qualities of attachment is that the biological needs of animals are often not recognized and therefore not satisfied, which can lead to the loss of a pet or escalation of conflicts of interest between humans and their animal companions.

The behavior of the most common pets — cats and dogs, the selection of which in recent decades was conducted in the appropriate direction, facilitates anthropomorphic attribution and projective processes in the same ways. Despite this, each of these species has specific behaviors in establishing and maintaining interactions with humans. Knowledge of these features is important, as based on anthropomorphic attribution unrealistic expectations of owners in relation to the behavior of different species of animals, being one of the main reasons for abandoning a pet, often lead to further psychological trauma. Peculiarities of behavior and needs of different types of pets should also be taken into account when including animals of different species in the therapeutic process. Modern studies show that people's attachment to pets does not lead to a reliable and stable change in the emotional well-being of the family, rather reflecting it than leading to its improvement.

Keywords: pets, attachment, family system, human-pet relationships

Psychological well-being of middle-aged women with different marital status. Role of separation from the parental family

By Elena Chebotareva, PhD, Elena Koroleva

The empirical research is devoted to the problem of psychological well-being of middle-aged women with different marital statuses. The sample of the study consisted of 365 women aged from 35 to 56 years old, among whom there were women who were married (for the first, second or third time), divorced and never married. Methods were used: "The scale of psychological well-being" (K. Riff) in the adaptation of Shevelenkova, Fesenko; "Psychological Separation Questionnaire" (J. Hoffman) in the adaptation of Dzukayeva and Sadovnikova; "Satisfaction Survey of Marriage" (Stolin, Romanova and Butenko).

The study showed that the marital status of middle-aged women, regardless of the quality of the relationship, is related to their psychological well-being. Married women are more satisfied with their lives than never married, and those who are divorced are intermediate in terms of psychological well-being. In the third marriage the psychological well-being of women is significantly higher than in the first two. Women who have never been married are less separated from their parents than those who are married. In general, with the accumulation of different experiences of marital relations by a woman, various aspects of her relationship with her parents are better restructured. Psychological well-being of middle-aged women is more related to satisfaction with marriage in the first and second marriages, in the third marriage only personal autonomy of the woman is associated with marital satisfaction. The nature of the relationship of psychological well-being with separation is different in women with different marital status. Most strongly, this relationship is expressed at women in a second marriage, somewhat less so at divorced and those who have never been married. The role of separation from father and mother is different for women with different marital status.

Keywords: psychological well-being, marital status, separation from the parental family, marital satisfaction, life satisfaction, remarriage, divorce

The specificity of mother's attachment to her child at an early age in the normal and severe dysontogenesis

By Tatiana Yakimova, PhD, Professor, Lyubov Metelkina

The study is focused on characteristics of attachment between a mother and her child of an early age. We have studied both families with typically developing children and families with children having signs of severe developmental disorders. The main purpose of the study was to study the factors of individual differences in the attachment styles of mothers to their children in different types of families. The study was carried out with the help of observation of parent-child interaction, semi-structured interviews about the representations of the mother's primary affection, questionnaires about the quality of parent-child interaction, EcoCard. The study involved 32 mother-child dyads with normative development of the child and severe dysontogenesis. According to the results, the quality of primary attachment between a mother and her young child is related to the peculiarities of the child's development, to the peculiarities of the mother's social and family ties and to the quality of representation of the mother's primary attachment, but in the comparison groups these connections are different.

Keywords: factors and conditions of the quality of attachment, representations of the primary attachment, the child of early age, severe dysontogenesis

Issue #2 (Volume 8)
2019

Chracteristics of emotionally focused therapy supervision

By Lucy Mikayelyan

This report outlines and systemizes modern practices of supervision employed by the emotionally focused therapists (EFT). It provides recommendations and describes approaches to designing an efficient EFT-supervision model that have been developed based on the authors' practical experience and works of other independent researches.

It shows that EFT supervision is designed in the image of Emotionally Focused Therapy according to the context and relationship specifics between the supervisor and the supervisee.

Special attention is paid to work with the Self of the therapist, which makes it one of the main focuses of the supervision along with specific EFT techniques and the EFT process itself. The article is illustrated with examples from the authors' own supervisional practice.

Keywords: EFT, supervision, secure attachment, safe alliance, new emotional experience, the therapist work, Self of the therapist

Supervision in the strategic approach

By Elena Fisun

The article is devoted to the peculiarities of supervision in the strategic approach. The strategic therapist operates with the following dynamic parameters: communication, communication patterns, family myths. A significant aspect for a strategic therapist is the concept of dominion in the family. The specificity of strategic psychotherapy, which associated with focusing on the problem, attention to hierarchy, focusing on the present and the future, getting a new emotional corrective experience, directivity, determines the specifics of the supervisory process. The tasks of supervision in the strategic approach are:

1. To help the therapist to develop a strategy of impact on the problem, taking into account the individual characteristics of the family.

2. To help to develop a strategy that is suitable for a particular therapist, taking into account his style, emotional characteristics, age, experience, skills and abilities.

3. To help the therapist to expand its therapeutic range.

In order to form an optimal strategy suitable for a particular therapist, it is necessary to carefully collect as much information about the individual characteristics of the therapist, to create a working alliance with the therapist. It is important for the supervisor to flexibly change the style of communication, working with different therapists.

The methods of indirect intervention applied in the strategic approach, such as paradoxical intervention, metaphors, the technique of "pretense", the illusion of an alternative, the technique of "confusion", the assumption of error, can be used as effective means to facilitate the implementation of these tasks in the supervisory process. Their application reduces resistance and/or uncertainty, anxiety of the therapist, especially novice. In addition, the use of direct interventions is appropriate. Strategic supervision is aimed at stimulating the creative activity of the therapist, the formation of flexibility of his thinking, professional competence and independence.

Keywords: supervision, strategic psychotherapy, indirect intervention, metaphor, paradox

The transformation psychological game "The parade of the planets" in the system family therapy of couples

By Anna Chugueva

The transformation psychological game «The Parade of the Planets» includes the elements of SFBT, system family therapy, narrative practice, the projective technique.

We used this game in couples therapy and saw how clients solved their troubles and their life was moved to a good direction. There is the review of client case in the article.

Players can act their life strategy on the metaphorical field of the game and understand their deadlock and illusion. Clients use game space for reflection and getting a new look at the system connection.

Keywords: psychotherapy, board games, transformation games, social games, system family therapy, metaphorical-associated cards, metaphor
Issue #1 (Volume 7)
2019

Love in "Traditional relationships"

By Marina Travkova

Modern romantic relationships seem to the natural basis for a long-term monogamous union, marriage and family. At the same time, "romantic feelings", "romantic love" did not always accompany marriage, and sometimes it was even a contraindication to it. Changing ideas about love in marriage, which is a complex structure that combines passion, romance, sexual exclusivity, friendship and long-term relationship, is contradictory and creates new zones of "vulnerability" and pain issues. Modern people do not just create a dyad for rational reasons; they are now responsible for their choice. Moreover, there is some kind of responsibility of being chosen. The reality of being rejected or betrayed by the romantic partner becomes more complicated and painful. The contradictory expectations placed on the combination of "romantic love" and monogamous union, create a new reality of emotional suffering, we have never have before.

Psychotherapy is an applied area, with its offers how to heal "love wounds", with its own solutions. Some of them are about "fixing" and retaining the contradictory elements of modern romantic love and marriage. The other direction is to abandon the framework of monogamous unions themselves, as they support the problem. This article offers a small insight of the location of romantic love to relationship and marriage.

It gives as well our view on how this reflects on the reality of psychotherapeutic approaches in issues related to the violation of dyadic intimacy and exclusivity.

Keywords: family, love and marriage, dyadic relationships, romantic love, adultery, monogamy, psychotherapy

Experience of using the games of Guenter Horn in work with families of teenagers suffering from psychosomatic diseases

By Elizaveta Hellinger

The article by Elizabeth Hellinger, a child and adolescent psychologist from Germany, deals with the use of the psychological transformational games of the German psychotherapist Guenther Horn in working with families of teenagers suffering from psychosomatic diseases. The article describes psychological board games selected to work with these psychosomatic disorders, and also highlights some aspects of psychosomatic diseases that served as the basis for choosing this psychological toolkit. The author gives an example of one of the lessons. The paper describes in detail in what areas of parent-child relationships there have been positive changes. The katamnese survey of parents six months later there is a persistent remission in psychosomatic pathology and an improvement in relationships with friends.

Keywords: games of Guenther Horn, Psycrets, psychological table games, kinderpsyche.com

Supervision in classical systemic family psychotherapy

By Anna Varga, Ph.D, Assistant professor

The article describes the different ways for supervision in a systems approach. It describes the goals and objectives of system supervision, its distinctive features. Methodical principles of systemic supervision are given. The diagnostic role of the isomorphism of the systems is analyzed. What affects perceptive and conceptual capabilities of the supervisee. The article provides examples of different cases of supervision.

Keywords: family psychotherapy, features of supervision in a systemic approach, methodical principles of supervision, distinctive features of systemic supervision

Supervision in the structural approach

By Elena Fisun

The article describes the main approaches to supervision based on the principles of structural family psychotherapy. In many ways, they are consistent with the methods of training supervision, developed with the cooperation of Jay Haley and Salvador Minukhin.

In order to understand the essence of structural supervision, it is necessary to have an understanding of the main provisions of the structural approach. Its essence-the creation of a single concept of the existence of the family in the period of time, based on the concept of describing the configuration of space. The structural therapist focuses on subsystems, boundaries, hierarchy, alliances and coalitions, as well as their functional states — cohesion and flexibility. Structural configurations are considered functional or non-functional depending on how they serve the needs of family members throughout the life cycle. The article describes the structural view of therapeutic changes, which is important for understanding the essence of effective supervision.

The main essence of structural supervision is to maintain therapeutic competence based on the structural paradigm. The main issues of the supervisory process include:
• the discrepancy between theoretical views of the therapist structural therapy and taken practical steps;
• focus of the supervisor solely on the technical recommendations of the supervisor without attention to the theoretical foundations;
• the supervisor's vision of his role in the structural therapy of the family;
• support for beginners or anxious therapists, activation of the therapy process;
• promoting the effective therapist's joining to the family;
• facilitating the therapist's adequate assessment of the family structure;
• use of interventions in the supervision process.

It is important for the supervisor not only to contribute to the solution of the actual problems presented by the therapist, but also to help in the development of the individual characteristics and advantages of the therapist, as well as in structural therapy not only solving the actual problems of the family are being solved, but also developed its life potential.

Keywords: structural family psychotherapy, supervision, structure, interventions, joining

Issue #4 (Volume 6)
2018

Review of the effectiveness studies of couples therapy

By Victor Bogomolov

The review lists effectiveness studies of couples therapy in clinical practice with obtained for each study effect sizes and percentage of clinically significant change. The problem of lower effect sizes obtained in effectiveness studies compared to efficacy studies using randomized clinical trials for couples therapy is elaborated. This review includes the results of newer studies using routine outcome monitoring for increasing effectiveness of couples therapy. Guidelines and recommendations are formulated for therapists practicing with couples.

Keywords: effectiveness, couples therapy, effect size, clinical significance, clients feedback, routine outcome monitoring, predictors

The modern field of the supervision in systemic psychotherapy approach

By Grazhina Budinaite, PhD in psychology

The article presents the adjusted text of the introductory lecture, performed for participants of Program of supervisors training (provided by Society of Family counselors and psychotherapists. Different variants of supervision processes depending on different purposes and forms are discussed. Article observes also difference in psychotherapy schools and methodology coexisting in the modern Systemic Psychotherapy field. Possible interlocks and relationships among different systems- such as clients', psychotherapy's and supervision's- in context of difference of forms, purposes and especially -classical and postclassical methodology are also discussed.

Keywords: supervision in psychotherapy practice; classical systemic psychotherapy; postclassical systemic psychotherapy; influence (effect) and therapeutical interaction; tasks, forms and kinds of supervision; therapy and supervision as isomorphic processes

Supervision of specialists who works in family placement adjustment and helping adoptive/foster families: the most difficult issues

By Ekaterina Zhuikova

The article is devoted to the analysis of the development of a family placement practice both in the world and specifically in Russia, the emergence of various forms of orphan's family placement, the assignment of various systems included in the process of caring for a child left without parent's care. Emphasizes the need for specialists of various profiles, who help adoptive/foster families and children without parental care, in the supervision of their professional activities in terms of a systematic family approach. It describes the main difficult issues imposed on supervision as problematic for the psychotherapeutic process with adoptive/foster families, considered the interventions of the supervisor and alternative descriptions of the stated topics. Discussed opportunities for supervision for inter professional teams working in the field of family placement, as well as for professional foster parents.

Keywords: family placement, adoptive/foster family, supervision, systemic family psychotherapy
Issue #3 (Volume 5)
2018

The phenomenon of single motherhood: the view from inside

By Anna Efimova, Elena Chebotareva, PhD

The paper deals with the problem of single motherhood from the point of view of subjective perception of this status, its connection with psychological well-being in other spheres of mother's life, resources and the strategies of coping with this difficult life situation. The results of an analysis of semi-structured interviews with 5 women, who class themselves as single mothers, are presented. It is shown that the feeling of being a single mother is not so much related to the actual separation from the father of the child, and to the help from the environment, but mostly ⎯ to the inability to share responsibility for the life of the child with someone. The state of loneliness in motherhood is experienced mainly as a heavy one, feelings of excessive tension, overload, confusion, guilt prevail. This condition is experienced heavier by those women whose partners (their child's fathers) made the decision to part with them.

The current relationships with the child's fathers, according to the women, have little effect on their sense of lonely motherhood, more important is the father's participation in the life of the child.

Recognizing the importance of psychological well-being in various spheres of life, the impact of mother's satisfaction with mother's life on child-parent relations, due to limited resources, women often sacrifice well-being in other areas for the sake of child-parent relations. Many women seek to find new resources to harmonize their lives and child-parent interaction, recourse to the specialists.

The most common strategies for coping with the difficult life situation are flexibility, acceptance of restrictions, sensitivity to the individual characteristics of their children and their own. Single mothers attach great importance to the joint time with children, rituals, the balance of emotional intimacy and distance with an adolescent.

Keywords: single motherhood, single mother, mono-parent family, child-parent interaction, adolescent, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, coping strategies.


«Imposter phenomenon»: the origin of the term, the basic concepts and their transformation

By Liudmila Bulgakova

The article is devoted to the description of different views on «imposter phenomenon». The concepts of P. Clans and Harvey and Katz, which include the main categories characterizing this phenomenon, are analyzed in detail, followed by a review of the scientific literature on the history of the appearance and transformation of the «imposter phenomenon», taking into account the socio-cultural context.

Keywords: «imposter phenomenon», denial of one's competence, fear of disclosure

Parents as agents of informal sex education: that to do?

By Marina Travkova

This article was born out of the numerous conversations of the author with parents over the past five years and discussions about educational articles. In the article, the reader is offered a short historical overview of the conditions in which a certain attitude to childhood, childish physical integrity and child sexuality has arisen, and he is invited to think that such obvious parenting practices are not something unshakable and natural at all.

We also set ourselves the task of revealing and substantiating the need for sexual education and education from the age of the kindergarten: by comparing the experience and the results obtained in those countries where sexual education has been introduced for several decades. Finally, in this article, we offer the reader some classification of the main topics for talking with the child about sexuality, intimacy and relationships, justifying the age range, appropriateness and relevance of each topic for each specific age.

Keywords: children's corporality, children's sexuality, education, the main topics of interviews with parents and children
Issue #2 (Volume 4)
2018

Representation of "Disease" by mothers of adolescent childhood cancer survivors

By Julia Bykhovets, PhD, Lina Kogan-Lerner

To describe representations of "disease" in families with adolescent childhood cancer survivors. Method: Participants were 8 mothers with experience of encounter of childhood cancer and 7 mothers without it. They chose one picture from TAT as association to the word "disease" and composed a small story about this picture. Then these stories were analyzed by content-analysis procedure. Results: We can conclude that stories of mothers with experience of encounter with childhood cancer have traits of PTSD. Their stories also help us to reconstruct the inner picture of traumatic experience of this kind of stressor (deadly child's disease).

Keywords: PTSD, PTS, child cancer, onco-pediatry, trauma, oncology, family system

Study of therapeutic interaction with the qualitative content analysis (the fragment of psychotherapeutic session in Murray Bowen's approach)

By Grazhina Budinaite, Anna Afanasieva, Ksenia Leonova, Anna Baboshkina

The article presents the results of the qualitative content-analysis of the ten minutes passage of psychotherapeutic session, which was conducted in M. Bowen's transgenerational approach. The system of descriptors was proposed — the particular number of the main semantic units or categories to describe client's and therapist's "actions" in their psychotherapeutic interaction. This system of descriptors was examined also by the number of experts of the field. Those main psychotherapist's and client's "actions" were charted on their interaction's "timeline", so the graphical image of the process was received.

As a result, the therapeutic process is presented in its development. This allows to match the therapist's actions with client's actions dynamics and with her progress achieved in the session.

Keywords: transgenerational approach, qualitative content-analysis, descriptors, dynamics of psychotherapeutic process, psychotherapeutic interaction of client and therapist

The image of the family through the eyes of an older child before and after the birth of the younger sibling in the drawing test "My Family"

By Alina Shur, Anna Varga, Elena Chebotareva

Emotional state of the child, how he perceives his family before and after the birth of a younger sibling explored in this article. The sample consists from 31 child preschoolers. The children were divided into a control group — whose mothers were not pregnant, and an experimental one, in whose family a new child was expected to appear. Children were tested twice before and after the birth of a younger sibling. Drawing test "My Family" was used in the study. The data obtained show that there are no difference between experimental and control groups when mothers were pregnant. There are statistically significant differences between groups after the birth of younger sibling. The children from experimental group shows higher level of anxiety, aggression, sense of lost emotional contacts with the parents. A qualitative analysis of drawings is also made in the article. Practical recommendations are proposed

Keywords: drawing test "My Family", siblings, family crisis, emotional state of a child, birth of younger sibling

Features assist families in difficult life situations and socially dangerous situation

By Inna Isaeva

The article describes the experience of the psychologist in the system of prevention of social orphanhood. To summarize my experience, we used the methods of observation, structured interview of parents, family study of social — and genograms, projective techniques. The obtained data allowed to reveal the peculiarities of helping families who have children at an early stage of distress. are in a difficult life situation, social risk. Examples of family difficulties at different stages of distress and achieved positive changes in the family.

Keywords: early stage of family problems, difficult situations, family crisis, social-dangerous situation of the family, the support of the family, social orphanhood

Supervision as a prevention of professional burnout of psychologists engaged in social sphere

ByTatiana Katrin

Supporting a professional position and observing ethical norms in counseling has always been the most important task of supervision. The qualitative supervision should lead to confident behavior of a specialist when he conducts a therapeutic a complex case that the supervisant presented for supervision. The feeling of support in a professional environment creates conditions for effective work and prevents the emergence of the syndrome of professional/emotional burnout. An attention to the prevention of burnout syndrome creates supportive conditions which an important thing, because by doing such way we contribute to a more comfortable sense of a specialist in a professional role and to the satisfaction of the process of activity. Postmodern approaches based on the principles of refusal from the expert position of the supervisor, respect for different points of view and cooperation provide the necessary methodological basis for supervision and allow us, as it seems to us, to effectively organize the supervisory process with representatives of different therapeutic directions.

Keywords: supervision, emotional burnout; professional position; narrative approach; a solution-oriented approach; social sphere, systemic approach
Issue #1 (Volume 3)
2018

The role of children in coping with the situation of the recession in the sphere of leisure and consumption among residents of various regions of Russia

By Anastasia Akbarova, Anastasia Vorobieva

The presence of children in the family plays a different role in coping with the recession in the sphere of leisure and consumption in different regions of Russia. The study was conducted on residents of the metropolitan region (102 people) in comparison with other regions of Russia (110 people living in large cities). The sample is balanced by sex, there are representatives of different professions with different income levels. An author's questionnaire was used to study the changes in the sphere of leisure and employment during the recession, the method "Cognitive-behavioral strategies for overcoming", a technique for diagnosing the level of social frustration by Wasserman. Despite the fact that the regional sample is characterized by a higher level of frustration in all social spheres and greater use of both constructive and non-constructive coping strategies, the positive role of children in coping with the family with a recession is revealed: for adults with children, a more active consumer and leisure behavior, belief in a miracle and a reorientation to achievements in other spheres of life (not economic). Respondents who do not have children are more comfortable with the recession in the capital region: they have more diversified leisure, more active consumer behavior, a positive assessment of the recession as an incentive for development. In the capital region, having a child in the family increases anxiety about survival, while in other regions of Russia the presence of the child emotionally supports the family in coping with a recession.

Keywords: families with children, attitude to the recession, coping strategies, social frustration, leisure psychology

Systemic consequences of surrogacy (surrogate maternity)

By Marina Bilobram, Ph.D. (Medicine)

The variety of typological cases in psychotherapeutic practice is constantly changing, in particular, in the field of psychotherapy of sterility. These changes are due, among other things, to the rapid growth of assisted reproductive technologies, which become a systemic factor effecting both parents and their child. Surrogacy is a new type of service for our society relating to Assisted Reproductive Technology. A surrogate mother is a woman who gives birth to a child for other individuals (genetic parents) as a result of xenogenic embryo implantation after in vitro fertilization (IVF). A new systemic case arises when more than two people participate in a child's birth. The structure of a family system is changing along with its functional features and all this affects each member of a system, especially the child.

In the present article the author presents a prognostic model of surrogacy's systematic effects on a child, shares his/her own observations and psychological state analysis of children who were born from surrogate mothers, gives tips to systemic psychologists on psychotherapeutic support and assistance of families having recoursed to a surrogacy program in order to prevent a child from undesirable systemic consequences.

Keywords: family; reproduction; infertility; surrogate motherhood; systemic consequences; child development; systemic family psychotherapy with infertility

Using the transformational games technologies in work with a couple

By Elena Mikheeva

The article describes the basic principles of the method transformational games; the example work with a married couple the search for a common cause, the interesting for both, which will give the opportunity to strengthen their relationship. The author gives a brief analysis of the psychological mechanisms, being realized in the T-game process allowing to reach successful results; Conclusions are made about the feasibility of application of this method in the framework of psychotherapy practice.

Keywords: psychological game, method of transformational game, dynamic projection, goal setting

Decision about divorce: way out from the fork

By Tatiana Sheredeko

The author suggests a new technique of psychotherapeutic work with couples who doubt whether they should stay together or who have already decided on a divorce. The name of the technique is Way Forward from the Crossroads.

The methodological basis of this work is the philosophy of Martin Buber whose main focus is the fundamental situation of human existence "I and Other", within which two types of relationships are distinguished: I-You and I-It. Another methodological basis of this technique is metaphor of the mirror, or the perception of oneself as Other. According to the model of psyche by Pyotr Anokhin, feedback affects decisions. In the proposed technique, a mirror and a dialogue with the partner provide such important feedback. Data from experiments with mirror reflection are presented.

The article describes in detail the basics of the technique and its application. The key parts of the technique are eye contact with one's reflection in the mirror, eye contact with the partner, and the verbalization of expectations. The latter comes in a specially structured format. It is an opportunity to look each other in the eye, to complete one stage of the relationship and start a new one.

The Way Forward from the Crossroads technique is a structured, step-by-step guide to experience an authentic Meeting and move on to the I-You relationship as conceptualized by Buber. Each one of the partners can explore the declared attitude towards oneself and experience the contact with oneself as Other. Way Forward from the Crossroads is also an opportunity to experience an existential loneliness and transcend to the essential contact with the partner. This happens even in cases where such contact is almost completely lost. In most cases, partners especially value the opportunity to verbalize their doubts, fears, and hopes that are hidden deeper beneath the couple's everyday conversations.

Keywords: partners, divorce, eye contact, mirror, decision making, relationship, way forward from the crossroads

Emotional process in society: a review and explanation of the concept

By Katharine Gratwick Baker, PhD
Translated by Alexey Shmelev


Murray Bowen began thinking about human functioning in large nonfamily systems in the 1940s. Over the next thirty years, he returned many times to this subject in papers and presentations and, in 1974, he introduced the eighth concept ― Emotional Process in Society (EPS) ― in his family systems theory. Although Dr. Bowen did not fully flesh out the concept during his lifetime, others have continued to explore and expand it, relating it to the other concepts in the theory and to a broader understanding of large human social units. This article reviews Bowen's original writing on EPS and offers specific examples of its interface with differentiation, triangles, projection, cutoff, and multigenerational family process.

Keywords: Bowen theory, progression and regression in societal process, differentiation, triangles, projection process, cutoff, multigenerational transmission process
Issue #2 (Volume 2)
2017

The drama of Lermontov M.: congenital disorder of personality or the influence of family history? Opinion of the systemic family therapist and psychiatrist

By Elena Fisun, Grigory Gorshunin

The result was the following conclusions: a family history of Mikhail Lermontov observed multiple projective process, the object of which was the poet himself. Lermontov M.Y. from an early age was a member of the extremely pathological triangle involving a grandmother and father. Lermontov childhood did not observe the model a "good" marriage with only the submission of the dramatic underpinnings of matrimony. Also noted traumatic events; physical dysfunction of the family members. These factors increase the level of anxiety in generations, reduce adaptive capacity of the family, which leads to a lowering of family differentiation and paternal and maternal Mikhail Lermontov. This, in turn, could not affect the level of self-differentiation of the Michael: we can assume that the level of differentiation was below average. The article presents evidence supporting this assumption.

From the point of view on a psychiatrist Lermontov could suffer from unipolar depression or bipolar affective disorder, which along with depression, is characterized by hypomanic episodes with elation, and not always adequate social behavior based on high self-esteem and reduction of criticism to the consequences of their own actions.

Keywords: M.Y.Lermontov, family history, genogram, self-differentiation, the process of projection; personality disorder

Applied behavior analysis for sexual education among individuals with ASD

By Daria Brazhenkova

The article describes principles of teaching skills, related to sexuality, to persons with autism developmental disorders. The article will consider some common issues concerning unacceptable sexual behavior. Some strategies of teaching necessary skills will be offered.

Keywords: ASD; sexual education; applied behavior analysis; ABA; behaviorism

Divorce and family mediation: an overview

By Nikolay Gordiychuk

Emotional tension of family conflicts predetermined the demand for mediation in this area as a more flexible and informal way of resolving disputes, which focuses on the interests of the parties and meeting their psychological needs. At the same time, family mediation has a number of features that distinguish it from mediation in the sphere of civil law or labor relations. This article gives an overview of some features of family mediation in order to acquaint with it the specialists of other helping professions dealing with families, as well as professional mediators from other fields. In particular, the question of the conditions for the applicability of mediation is discussed, and a number of practical recommendations are proposed for conducting preliminary screening preceding the start of the mediation process. The role of co-mediation in resolving family disputes and the conditions under which it will be most effective (gender and professional balance of co-mediators, general work standards and the distribution of roles between them) are explained. An important feature of family mediation is also attention to the protection of the rights and interests of the child: the article discusses practical ways by which the mediator can help participants to bring them into life on the basis of cooperation between parents. The article also discusses the "voice of the child" problem in mediation and safe formats for the participation of minors in the mediation process. The author also considers the problem of the distinctions between mediation in family disputes and psychotherapeutic practice. In conclusion, the author describes the development of international family mediation as a supra-jurisdictional tool for resolving cross-border family disputes and the specifics of this form of mediation. family mediation; protection of the interests of the child; co-mediation; mediation for divorce; mediation and psychotherapy; international family mediation

Keywords: family mediation; protection of the interests of the child; co-mediation; mediation for divorce; mediation and psychotherapy; international family mediation

Five rules of legal support in family disputes

By Victoria Dergunova, Alisa Volkhova

Article is devoted to the rules of "successful divorce", careful performance by advocacy to which will allow to minimize the risk of event's development along the conflict line, to keep interaction between former spouses and (or) parents in future.

Keywords: divorce; family; attorney at law; advocacy; custody disputes

Psychotherapy of feeling of guilt in terms of different approaches: strategic and narrative approaches, internal family systems, psychodrama and schema therapy

By Tatiana Rytsareva, Svetlana Timofeeva, Ekaterina Jorniak, Karina Karamyan, Alexandra Yaltonskaya

The article considers the possibilities of applying different approaches to the psychotherapy of feelings of guilt. Strategic and incremental approaches, systemic family therapy of subpersonalities, psychodrama and scheme-therapy are presented. Specialists from different therapeutic schools presented an introduction to the methodology of each of the presented approaches, an analysis of the phenomenon of feeling of guilt, a possible strategy, a technical arsenal, and described a possible positive result of psychotherapeutic work.

The article based on materials of the Round Table "Similarities, differences and contradictions of approaches in the psychotherapy of feeling of guilt", which took place on September 24, 2017 at the conference "The Modern Field of Family Psychotherapy". The article will be useful for psychotherapists-practitioners who are ready to integration of approaches.

Keywords: guilt; strategic approach; narrative approach; internal family systems; psychodrama and schema therapy

A systemic approach in working with the family planning waiver newborn

By Tatiana Yaroslavtseva, Larissa Lazareva

The article provides an analysis of many years of work the organization has conducted with families planning to surrender their child. It describes a "social portrait" of a woman applying for child abandonment and the main motives she has for doing so (the reasons stated — more often social, but also deeper personal problems). The term "system approach" is presented from a number of perspectives. Firstly, it is a complex of actions aimed at providing all-round help to the family that found itself in a harsh situation. Secondly, baby abandonment is viewed from the perspective of family system analysis. Through an example of 20 families that have been in work for a number of years, the article describes the main reasons that led the family to the situation where they have to abandon their baby. The organization's specialists worked with every member of the family, and their aim wasn't to persuade the family to keep their baby as much as to restore of the family system overall. For those families the situation of baby abandonment became the starting point that helped them to overcome the crisis through mobilizing family resources and getting help from the outside.

Keywords: Prevention of social orphanhood; prevention of abandonment of babies; work with family planning to surrender their child; deviant motherhood; system approach in social work; family system
Issue #1 (Volume 1)
2017

Interpretation in the therapy based on M.Bowen's theory: conversation analysis

By Ivan Geronimus, Lina Kogan-Lerner

The article presents preliminary results of the study of interaction in therapy based on M. Bowen's family system theory. We are guided by the work of Canadian researchers of the University of Calgary. These researches began to study various aspects of psychotherapeutic dialogue using the conversation analysis method systematically.

The problem of our research can be formulated as follows: how does a client accept and "assimilate" the interpretation offered by therapist. This article examines a fragment of interaction that the client has assessed as useful for him and empowering him to move towards preferred changes. An excerpt of the session of family system therapist A. Varga is analyzed.

The authors describe the process of "assimilating" interpretation given by therapist in step-by-step fashion. Intonation of speech on the different stages of dialogue and turn-by-turn organization of the conversation is analyzed. The results show that client in this fragment can be considered as a "co-author" of a new understanding of his life situation that emerges in therapy process.

Keywords: Bowen's family system theory, interpretation in the therapy, conversation analysis, therapeutic interaction study

Family survival rules: messages to children

By Anna Varga, Olga Markitanova, Elena Cherepanov

The family is an open system that adapts to its external environment-society and is influenced by the social environment. The social environment in Russia has always been hostile to man and to the family. Collective traumatization creates a certain culture of society. The experience of overcoming trauma is formalized in the family in the form of survival messages. In the history of Russia, recently, there have been many traumatic events. They formed a traumocentric mentality in the whole society. This article describes the study of family rules of survival. The aim of the study is to compare the survival messages obtained from ancestors with the survival messages addressed to children. Studying family survival messages helps to understand the historical, psychological and cultural consequences of traumatization. In turn, this knowledge is necessary for the development of psychotherapeutic influences and social interventions that can help break the cycle of trauma.

Subjects-women N 58, average age 38 years completed a questionnaire on the rules of survival received in their parents' families. In addition to questions about the rules of survival obtained, the questionnaire asked what kind of parting words they would give their children. The questionnaires were processed using content analysis. Unique and general survival messages related to the survival experience of parental families were identified. The rules of survival addressed to children differ from the rules received from ancestors. The main difference is that in the survival messages addressed to children there are rules about ethical behavior, the value of compassion, the value of education and profession, in contrast to the survival rules derived from ancestors that contain traumocentric attitudes.

Keywords: family systems transgenerational trauma, cultural trauma, social trauma, trauma centered mentality, survival messages

Correction of emotional and behavioral problems with children in the stage of remission using short-term strategic therapy methods

By Elena Fisun, Roman Miroshkin

The article is devoted to the topic of psychological work with emotional-behavioral disorders in children who have had oncological disease and are at the stage of remission. These disorders are noted in children who have had cancer, along with other psychological disorders: neurocognitive and psychomotor. In the study of the emotional and behavioral sphere conducted in the conditions of the therapeutic and rehabilitation scientific center "Russian Field" NNPTS DGOI them. Dmitry Rogachev, 237 children-patients from 6 to 18 years took part. It was found that affective disorders were observed — in 24% of children, anxiety and fears — in 19%, depressive tendencies — in 13%, signs of social disadaptation — in 17%, closedness — in 13%.

Based on the analysis of appeals from more than 3000 families, the main requests for psychological work on emotional-behavioral problems in children have been identified: problems related to physiological functions (nutritional disorders, sleep disorders, enuresis, encopresis); Problems in training, in development, motivational and volitional passivity; Problems of social communication (isolation, restriction of social contacts); Behavioral problems (aggressiveness, tantrums, disobedience, obsessions, etc.); Emotional problems (fears, anxiety, self-doubt, nightmares). Also, the features of child-parent interaction were analyzed.

As a method of working with emotional-behavioral problems, short-term strategic therapy of J. Nardone was used. The scheme of psychological work within the framework of the short-term strategic approach is described. The results of work with 52 patients and members of their families were analyzed: improvement of symptoms was noted in 88% of patients, absence of changes — in 12% (mainly with motivation and willful passivity), there were no worsening. Taking into account the obtained results, it can be concluded that the application of the method used has shown its effectiveness and expediency in carrying out psychological rehabilitation of families with children who have had an oncological disease. The article gives examples of clinical cases.

Keywords: emotional-behavioral problems in children, oncological disease, short-term strategic therapy, rehabilitation

What are balanced and unbalanced families in the perception of Russian adolescents in comparison to American, French, and South Korean families with adolescents

By Grazhina Budinaite, Maria Zelenskaya

Specialists working in the field of modern family study and support still have few really useful, well-structured and standardized measurements for their research. D. Olson's FACES, exploring structural family characteristics, is one of the few we can use here. In this article, we aim to apply Olson's method to the investigation of families with adolescents in Russia. Standardized norms for this age group were obtained from this study, which also made it possible for us to compare them with 1) norms for other age groups in so-called "balanced" and "unbalanced" families (groups of children of age 3-7 and age 12) 2) with the norms of such groups in other countries – USA, France and South Korea (our main goal). We show that there is a measurable difference in perceiving «real» and «ideal» families as balanced or unbalanced among culturally different groups of adolescents. Standards that we have obtained for Russian adolescents show that their real families, as well as the families they would like to have, are in the zone that may be considered "dysfunctional" in the wider context of world standards. This raises a lot of questions and calls for further investigation.

Keywords: Olson circular model, structural characteristics of family systems, cultural features, the adaptability and cohesion scales, family with teenager, families with children, functional – dysfunctional family system, standards and norms
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